Definition and classifications

What is cryptorchidism?

The term refers to the absence of testis in the scrotum. It does not represent one type of congenital disease, but a number of different pathologies, manifested by a similar phenotype.

How to differentiate from retractile testis?

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Your guide to Cryptorchidism classification:

A true undescended testis is on its normal path of descent but is halted on its way down to the scrotum. The testes may be palpable or not, as in the case of testes arrested in the inguinal canal.

If the position of a testis is outside its normal path of descent and outside the scrotum, the testis is considered to be ectopic. Usually, there is no possibility for an ectopic testis to descend spontaneously to a correct position; however in many cases the differentiation from undescendend testis is possible peroperatively.

Cases where testis is absent or severely atrophic and the testicular vessels and vas deferens are found on surgical exploration. The underlying cause of the phenomenon is thought to be an in-utero infarction of an originaly normal testis due to gonadal vessel torsion. The term “vanishing testis“ is commonly used for this condition

A very rare condition. Testis and testicular vessels are absent. Agenesis is thought to result from failed development of the testicular blood supply or from abnormal gonada l ridge differentiation, for example, in cases of complete 46XY gonadal dysgenesis.

A testis previously thought to be descended and later noted to be out of the scrotum. It may be an unrecognized minimal form of undescendend testis, which only become apparent as the child grows to height. Less often we encounter acquired cryptorchidism caused by spermatic cord entrapment after herniorraphy or hydrocele repair

Cryptorchidism | 1. basics of cryptorchidism
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