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urology to help everyone learn more about the field.
Step 1: Confirm diagnosis of undescended testis
A proper physical examination is of utmost importance.
Make sure you’re in a warm room and use both hands to examine the child.
Start the examination when the child is lying down and then move them into a frog sitting (or squatting) position, where the cremaster reflex is attenuated due to the relaxation of the abdominal muscles (see picture). Only in this way can you distinguish the retractile testicle from the undescended.
With one hand, gently push the testicle out of the groin canal against the fingers of your other hand, which is holding the scrotum
If no testis can be identified along the normal path of descent, possible ectopic locations must be considered.