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There is an increased rate of psychological and behavioral problems in children with LUTD and NE.
Approximately 20-40% of children with NE and DUI and 30-50% of children with fecal incontinence have clinically relevant behavioral problems, classified according to DSMV. This may interfere with treatment and result outcome.
Children with NE + DUI
Children with fecal incontinence
Internalizing problems like separation anxiety depression (+ sleep/eating disorders) / phobias (11.4%), and emotional disorders can be present in children with LUTS. However, externalizing problems predominate. The most specific comorbid disorder with enuresis is Attention hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 24.8%), oppositional behavior (10.9%), and conduct problems (11.8%). ADHD can negatively affect compliance and outcome.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) shows that children with ASD showed increased rates of NE and DUI in comparison to healthy children.