Monitor renal function

Recent additions:

The measurement of albuminuria has been added, since its dosage may add prognostic information.

How to reduce progression of renal disease:

  • Strict control of blood pressure
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Normal protein diet reduce progression of renal damage

When renal insufficiency develops phosphate binders, sodium restriction, bicarbonate, vitamin D supplement, erythropoietin (EPO), should be started and tailored to individual cases.

  • The kidneys have several functions: excretion of water, metabolites (including urea, phosphate, uric acid, potassium, hydrogen ions), drugs; production of erythropoietin, vitamin D.

  • Patients who develop chronic renal disease require close monitoring for sequelae or renal failure.

  • Urinalysis and serum levels of: Hb, bicarbonates, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, uric acid, vitamin D, PTH, urea, creatinine, lipids, albumin are needed.

  • Measurement of height, weight, blood pressure are mandatory.

Prognosis of CKD by GFR and albuminuria categories

The amount of proteinuria has been added to the classification.

KDIGO 2012
Transitional urology
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