• Patients with DSD and cloacal anomalies should be aware of potential difficulties with fertility.
  • Fertility is widely variable and depends on a patient’s underlying disorder.
  • Females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia may have decreased fertility when compared with the general population.
  • Patients with Klinefelter syndrome generally demonstrate azoospermia on semen analyses, but paternity is achieved with testicular sperm extraction.
  • Some patients with ovotesticular DSD may achieve pregnancy from functional ovarian tissue, although they generally first require removal of any existing testicular tissue.
  • Many females with cloacal anomalies are fertile, but require caesarean delivery.
Transitional urology
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