Epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology

Incidence

Boys/year

 

1.7/1000

Girls/year

 

3.1/1000

Prevalence (0-6 years)

Females

 

8%

Males

 

2,5%

source: Jodal, ESPN 2002

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent the most common bacterial infections in children.
  • Associated risk factors for recurrent UTIs include bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and obesity.
  • Recurrent febrile UTIs, especially in combination with high-grade VUR, lead to renal scarring.
  • The leading causative organism for UTIs has been E. coli, but other bacteria have been rising in prevalence.
  • Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in nosocomial infections.
UTI & VUR
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