Epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology
Prevalence (0-6 years)
source: Jodal, ESPN 2002
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent the most common bacterial infections in children.
- Associated risk factors for recurrent UTIs include bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and obesity.
- Recurrent febrile UTIs, especially in combination with high-grade VUR, lead to renal scarring.
- The leading causative organism for UTIs has been E. coli, but other bacteria have been rising in prevalence.
- Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in nosocomial infections.