Basics of VUR

What is VUR?

Vesicoureteric reflux is an anatomical and/or functional disorder.

Risk factors

  • VUR can cause potentially serious consequences.
  • Patients with VUR present with a wide range of severity, and a good proportion of reflux patients do not develop renal scars and probably do not need any intervention.

Epidemiology

  • Incidence: % 1 in live births.
  • VUR, which is more common in boys in the newborn period, is found 4-6 times more in girls in the following years.

Pathophysiology

The definition of primary vesicoureteral reflux refers to reflux caused by ureterovesical junction anomaly and ureteral abnormalities such as complete ureteral duplication, ectopic ureteral orifice, ureterocele.

Secondary VUR is used for vesicoureteral reflux with pathologies that affect bladder function, such as the neuropathic bladder, or cause bladder outlet obstruction, such as the posterior urethral valve.

Causes

Patients typically present in one of two ways: as a result of prenatal hydronephrosis or a UTI.

In infants
In older children

Effects

VUR can cause potentially serious consequences, such as:

  • Renal scarring
  • Hypertension
  • Renal failure
  • Proteinuria
UTI & VUR
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